Dr. Armand Frappier in a laboratory of the Montreal Institute of Microbiology and Hygiene.
30 years ago, on December 18, 1991, Dr. Armand Frappier died. Through our archives, discover how Doctor Armand Frappier contributed to eradicating diseases such as tuberculosis and poliomyelitis through research and the production of vaccines.
Armand Frappier was born in 1904 in the village of Salaberry-de-Valleyfield. A brilliant student, he was as passionate about chemistry as he was about music. The loss of loved ones led him to dedicate his life to the fight against tuberculosis.
Host Charles Tisseyre paints a portrait of this important researcher in this report broadcast on The History of Science August 27, 2000.
This episode recalls the work of Armand Frappier, in epidemiology and immunology. Narrator: Charles Tisseyre
Tuberculosis takes away the mother of Armand Frappier when he is only 19 years old. He also lost his brother and his grandmother to this disease. During the 1930s, tuberculosis was baptized the white plague and ravaged the poorest communities.
Armand Frappier enrolled in the Faculty of Medicine at the Université de Montréal in 1924. He financed his studies by founding the orchestra Les Carabins in which he played the violin. The group performs at Dupuis frères, in restaurants and on Canadian Steamship Line cruise ships.
Dr. Frappier will specialize in microbiology and study in American laboratories after becoming a Rockefeller Foundation Fellow. He will also stay at the Institut Pasteur in Paris.
In the early 1930s, the Institut Pasteur developed the BCG vaccine against tuberculosis. The vaccine is named after its founders: Doctors Calmette and Guérin. The live vaccine, prepared from an attenuated strain of bovine tubercle bacillus, remains highly controversial in North America.
Determined to eradicate the disease in Canada, Armand Frappier brought back a strain of BCG from the Institut Pasteur in 1933. He continued his work, despite some criticism. It will develop and sell vaccines against tuberculosis to hospitals.
“Quebec will become the basin best covered by anti-tuberculosis vaccination, still contested elsewhere in the world. »
— Charles Tisseyre
Doctor Frappier founded the Montreal Institute of Hygiene and Microbiology in 1938, affiliated with the University of Montreal.< /p>
The Institute took part in the war effort when, from 1939, it was responsible for the freeze-drying (cold drying) of blood serum for the Canadian Armed Forces and its allies. 150,000 units of serum will be sent to the Red Cross.
In the early 1950s, the Institute's research focused on poliomyelitis. This terrible disease that attacks the lungs and sometimes paralyzes those who are affected for life.
Doctor Armand Frappier makes a statement on the Institute of Microbiology and Hygiene of the University of Montreal which occupies its new premises in Laval-des-Rapides; the Salk vaccine against poliomyelitis is produced there.
Frappier has the support of Prime Minister Duplessis to develop vaccines. In this extract from March 15, 1956, he thanks the government for granting a grant for the development of the Institute of Microbiology and Hygiene of Montreal.
The money will be used to build new laboratories in Laval-des-Rapides, where animals needed for research can be raised directly on the Institute's grounds. The government also financed the production of the Salk vaccine against poliomyelitis.
On the program Aujourd'hui of November 21, 1968, journalist Jean Ducharme s&# x27;talks with Dr. Armand Frappier, Dr. Adrien G. Borduas and Dr. Vytautas Pavilanis about the research carried out at the Institute.
Journalist Jean Ducharme talks with Dr. Armand Frappier, Dr. Adrien G. Borduas and Dr. Vytautas Pavilanis about the work carried out at the Institute of Microbiology and Hygiene at the University of Montreal.
< p class="e-p">At the time, the work allowed 2 million vaccinations per year in the country. 150 researchers and technicians worked on the production of the vaccines.
Armand Frappier played a fundamental role both in the training of doctors and in raising the awareness of politicians on issues of hygiene, public health and the financing of biomedical research.
“We gave our province all the vaccines it needed, and in times of emergency, it can count on the Institute. »
— Armand Frappier
The Institute of Microbiology and Hygiene has also produced vaccines against whooping cough, measles and influenza.
< p class="e-p">Doctor Frappier has been rewarded many times during his career and after his retirement, which he took in 1974, at the age of 70. The Institute of Microbiology and Hygiene was renamed the Institut Armand-Frappier in 1975.
Despite its solid reputation in Canada and abroad, the Institut Armand Frappier was dismantled in the early 1990s and ceased production of vaccines. In 1998, he was attached to the National Institute for Scientific Research (INRS).
The Armand Frappier Center linked to INRS is now interested in prevention and the search for solutions to public health problems such as cancer, antibiotic resistance and Alzheimer's disease.
On March 21, 2012, Dr. Armand Frappier was inducted into the Canadian Medical Hall of Fame in Toronto. He died on December 18, 1991, at the age of 87.
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