Archive | The Montreal Protocol at the bedside of the ozone layer

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Archives | The Montreal Protocol at the bedside of the ozone layer

35 years ago, an international agreement for the protection of the ozone layer was concluded in Montreal.

On September 16, 1987, the Montreal Protocol was signed by 24 countries, including Canada. A few years earlier, the discovery of a “hole” in the ozone layer had sounded the alarm. Back to the archives on this international agreement which has made it possible to reduce ozone-destroying substances, including CFCs.

“It's kind of a perpetual motion that was in balance until the appearance of pollutants in the atmosphere, mainly chlorine products…”

— Pierre Maisonneuve

Excerpt from a presentation by host Pierre Maisonneuve explaining the process of destruction of the ozone layer .

This excerpt from a presentation by host Pierre Maisonneuve comes from the program Découverte broadcast on March 5, 1989.

Pierre Maisonneuve explains to us a phenomenon which, at the time, constituted a danger for the earth's population, but which currently would be reduced: the destruction of the ozone layer.

In 1985, British chemists made a disturbing discovery.

In Antarctica, at the South Pole, they detected a hole in the ozone layer which protects the Earth from the harmful effects of the rays emitted by the Sun.

In fact, they find that this layer is thinning. This reduction allows more ultraviolet rays to enter the Earth's atmosphere. It is estimated that the ozone layer decreases by 3 to 4% each decade.

Ultraviolet rays cause skin cancer in particular. For 1% decrease in the ozone layer, the incidence of this type of disease increases by 4%.

Pierre Maisonneuve dissects the process of destruction that the layer of ozone undergoes. 'ozone.

Polutant materials, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), composed mainly of chlorine, interact more and more with the ozone layer.

However, the chlorine has the property of eating away at ozone molecules. The result is the gradual disappearance of the layer that they make up.

The cold, particularly present at the North and South poles of the Earth, amplifies this destructive power of CFCs. This explains the appearance of holes over the Arctic and Antarctic.

The refrigeration and air conditioning industries, those that use aerosols and those who manufacture synthetic foams, all major users of CFCs, contest the discovery.

But the international community does not want to take any risks. We must restore the ozone layer.

It was in Montreal that the first concrete actions for its reconstitution were adopted.

“Ten years of negotiations have just ended in Montreal with the signing of an agreement — and that is truly historic — an agreement to protect the ozone layer. »

— Bernard Derome

Journalist Jacques Rivard presents the highlights of the Montreal Protocol.

On September 16, 1987, Téléjournal host Bernard Derome announces excellent news. 24 countries and the European Economic Community have signed a memorandum of understanding supervised by the United Nations in the Quebec metropolis.

The agreement comes to the bedside of the ozone layer. The journalist Jacques Rivard proposes in the Téléjournalfrom that day a report that details the highlights of the Montreal Protocol, which will come into force on January 1, 1989.

The agreement plans a gradual elimination of 50% of the x27; use of CFCs until 1999. Developing countries are granted a ten-year grace period to comply.

Several amendments have been added over the years to increase prohibitions prescribed by the Montreal Protocol.

In 2009, CFCs were permanently phased out, except for very small and essential quantities, particularly for medicine.

In 2007, the Montreal Protocol celebrated its 20th anniversary . The event is celebrated by representatives of 191 countries gathered in Montreal.

Report by journalist Jean-Hugues Roy in the form of a progress report for the Montreal Protocol

Journalist Jean-Hugues Roy offers a progress report as part of the Téléjournal of September 16, 2007 hosted by Céline Galipeau.

The report emphasizes that the Montreal Protocol has revolutionized the ways of doing things in the refrigeration and air conditioning.

New generations of refrigerant gases, hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), have replaced 80% of CFCs.

From the outset, Canada, through the former Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, proposes at this anniversary conference that hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) replace all HCFCs by 2020.

HFCs are found to be less damaging to the ozone layer and do not contribute to climate change.

Last stone in the building, the Kigali amendment to the Montreal Protocol, signed in October 2016, aims to eliminate use of most HFCs by 2047.

Since 2000, the ozone layer has recovered approximately 1-3% per decade.

In 2018, the hole in the ozone layer above the South Pole reached almost 24.8 million square kilometers. This is about 16% smaller than the largest hole ever measured – 29.6 million square kilometers in 2006.

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