COP27 ends with mixed results | COP27
After hard discussions , COP27 participants agreed to create an aid fund for poor countries affected by climate change.
After long and difficult negotiations that went well beyond the schedule As expected, COP27 ended at dawn on Sunday after adopting a much-discussed text on aid to poor countries affected by climate change, but without new ambitions for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Greenhouse effect.
After more than two weeks, the major UN climate conference ended more than a day behind schedule, making it one of the longest COPs ever. of history.
It was not easy, but we finally accomplished our mission, underlined the Egyptian president of the conference, Sameh Choukri.< /p>
A final declaration, the result of many compromises, was finally adopted, calling for a rapid reduction in emissions, but without new ambition compared to the last COP in Glasgow in 2021.
We We need to drastically reduce emissions now, and that is a question that this COP has not answered, regretted the UN Secretary General, Antonio Guterres, at the end of the climate conference.
In the process, the European Union expressed disappointment with the agreement on emissions.
On the other hand, this edition was marked by the adoption of an emblematic resolution, described as historic by its promoters, on compensation for the damage caused by climate change already suffered by the poorest countries.
This issue of climate loss and damage in poor countries almost derailed the conference, before being the subject of a last-minute compromise text which leaves many questions unanswered, but acknowledges the principle of creation of a specific financial fund.
Loss and damage in vulnerable countries can no longer be ignored, even if some developed countries had decided to ignore our suffering, hailed young Ugandan activist Vanessa Nakate.
The text on emissions reductions was also hotly contested, with many countries denouncing what they saw as a step back from the ambitions set out at previous conferences.
In particular on the most ambitious objective of the Paris agreement to limit global warming to 1.5°C compared to the pre-industrial era, which is however reaffirmed in the final decision.
The current commitments of the signatory countries of the agreement do not make it possible to meet this objective, nor even that of containing the rise in temperature to 2°C compared to the pre-industrial era, when humans have begun to use the fossil fuels responsible for global warming en masse.
These commitments, assuming they are fully met, would at best lead the world to an increase of 2 .4°C at the end of the century. At the current rate of emissions, it is heading instead for a catastrophic increase of 2.8°C.
However, at nearly 1.2°C of warming currently, the dramatic impacts of climate change are already increasing.
The year 2022 has been an illustration of this, with its procession of devastating droughts, fires and floods, impacting crops and infrastructure.< /p>
The costs of these extreme events are also soaring: the World Bank has estimated the cost of the floods at $30 billion, which left a third of Pakistan's territory under water. water for weeks and which caused millions of victims.
=”e-p”>The battle will not end with the adoption of the Sharm el-Sheikh resolution since it deliberately remains vague on certain controversial points.
Operational details must be defined for adoption at the next COP, which will take place at the end of 2023 in the United Arab Emirates and which promises new confrontations, especially on the question of contributors, with developed countries insisting that China be part of it. .
Another topic that rocked the COP: ambitions for greenhouse gas emissions reductions.
Many countries considered that the texts proposed by the Egyptian presidency constituted a step backwards on the commitments to regularly raise the level made in 2021 at the COP in Glasgow.
This COP has weakened the obligations for countries to present new and more ambitious commitments, regretted Laurence Tubiana, architect of the 2015 Paris agreements.
Not to mention the question of the reduction in the use of fossil fuels, the cause of global warming, but barely mentioned in most climate texts.
Coal had been mentioned in 2021 after tough exchanges, but in Sharm el-Sheikh the usual suspects, in the words of one delegate, again opposed it for oil and gas. Saudi Arabia, Iran and Russia are the countries most often named in this regard.
The development of renewable energies is, however, the subject of an unprecedented mention alongside low-emission energies, an expression generally applied to nuclear power.