A strange syndrome appeared in Haiti, the United States and Canada in the early 1980s. The media then described it as a particular form of cancer that attacked the immune system of those affected. It was the birth of an unprecedented human and medical crisis. Our timeline.
Studies show that the virus was implanted in America via a only man, a Haitian, who would have traveled to the Congo.
Prof Gordon Hennigar may have autopsied the first AIDS victim in the United States.
- < li>An analysis published in the magazine Nature in 1998 shows the presence of HIV in a blood sample taken in 1959 from a man who died in the Republic of Congo (Belgian Congo at the time). This is the first documented case of a human being killed by HIV/AIDS.
- A 49-year-old New Yorker of Haitian origin, nicknamed Ardouin A, dies of pneumocystosis, a disease now associated with AIDS. Pathologist Gordon Hennigar, who conducted the autopsy, repeatedly asserted that this patient probably died of AIDS.
- The virus remains unknown for decades, but many cases will be diagnosed retrospectively, particularly in Africa. The HIV-2 variant (which will be identified in 1985) spreads in West Africa, particularly in Guinea-Bissau, from the mangabey monkey.
- Studies show that the virus has taken hold in America through one man, a Haitian who is said to have traveled to the Congo.
- In 1969, a 16-year-old boy from St. Louis, USA, died of an illness that left doctors speechless. Tests conducted 18 years after his death will show the presence of HIV. Robert Rayford is the first confirmed case of a person who has died of AIDS in the United States. Before dying, the young man said he had never received a blood transfusion and had never traveled outside the Midwest, which would therefore indicate the presence of the disease on American soil before 1966. on this case since the 1980s tend to show that he had had male partners.
- In 1976, the members of a Danish family die one after the other of a strange disease. The father, a sailor, had visited Nigeria and Cameroon in the early 1960s and would have maintained contact with prostitutes. In the same year, a Canadian pilot reportedly contracted HIV in Zaire following a blood transfusion he had to receive after a plane crash.
- In 1977, a San Francisco prostitute gives birth to the first of three children who will be diagnosed with HIV after they die. The mother, who died in 1987, was believed to have been infected before 1977.
- In 1978, many American homosexual men as well as Tanzanian and Haitian heterosexuals showed symptoms that would later be described as those of AIDS.< /li>
- Retrospective analyzes show that a Portuguese man was the first Westerner to die from an HIV-2 infection.
The first description of AIDS in the United States
- In 1980, at the University Hospital of Los Angeles , Dr. Michael Gottlieb treats three gay men with similar clinical signs (weight loss, Kaposi's sarcoma, fever and pneumonia).
- Dr. Gottlieb's patients died in 1981. The doctor sent their records to the Centers for Disease Control in Atlanta, which then disseminated the description of the disease throughout the United States. This makes it possible to identify 31 identical cases in less than 15 days.
- The New York Times publishes a first article concerning AIDS, which speaks of a rare cancer diagnosed in 41 homosexuals.
- Researchers recognize the emergence of a new disease that destroys the immune system and thus prevents sufferers from defending themselves against the most common infections.
- Early research shows that the disease is transmitted by sexual and blood routes and that it does not strike only homosexuals. It also affects intravenous drug users and some people who have received blood transfusions.
The New York Times publishes a first article concerning AIDS, which speaks of a rare cancer diagnosed in 41 homosexuals.< p class="sc-v64krj-0 knjbxw">Luc Montagnier, Jean-Claude Chermann and Françoise Barre-Sinoussi, three of the scientists who succeeded in isolating the AIDS virus.
- First documented case of AIDS in a person who is not gay or drug addicted: a 59-year-old man with hemophilia from Colorado, United States.
- First cases recorded in Canada.
- The disease , until now called GRID (Gay-Related Immune Deficiency), is officially named AIDS by researcher Bruce Voeller. French speakers then call it AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome).
- A French team isolates for the first time the agent responsible for AIDS, to which it gives the name of LAV (Lymphadenopathy Associated Virus).
- The American CDC warns blood banks of a possible contamination of blood supplies.
- The first trial for discrimination against a person with AIDS is held in the United States.
- Prof Montagnier and his French colleagues file a patent application for an AIDS screening test.
- To date, there have been 1,300 cases of AIDS in the United States, and 460 have died from it .
- Public health organizations set guidelines for safer sex.
Dr. Robert Gallo has since admitted that Montagnier's team was the first to identify HIV.
- The American researcher Robert Gallo in turn isolates the virus and claims to have discovered it. The French and American teams would fight for several years to identify the virus.
- The book And The Band Played On (1987) published by Randy Shilts and the film by same name (1993) relate this episode and the first years of the appearance of the virus.
- In this same book, the author evokes the death in Quebec of the flight attendant Gaétan Dugas, nicknamed at the time the “zero patient”, who would have been responsible for the introduction of the #x27;outbreak in the United States. In 2016, a genetic analysis shows that the 31-year-old Quebecer was not the person who introduced HIV to the United States.
- Research shows antiretroviral activities of AZT.
- The different modes of transmission of HIV are clearly established.
- Young American Ryan White is the first hemophiliac to be infected with HIV. He is expelled from the high school where he was studying, which provokes a national debate in the United States. He died in 1990.
- The first screening tests were put on the market.
The cover of Time magazine from August 12, 1985.
- The 1st International AIDS Conference is held in Atlanta , in the USA. First therapeutic trials with AZT in the United States.
- There are 23,000 people affected in the United States, and 12,500 have died.
- The ;59-year-old actor Rock Hudson is the first celebrity to die of AIDS and publicly admit to having it.
- The B-52's guitarist Ricky Wilson dies.
- First cases reported in China.
- United States President Ronald Reagan mentions the word “AIDS” for the first time while that he answers questions from journalists.
< li>Ontario reports 131 AIDS cases, Quebec 85, and British Columbia 70.
American model Gia Carangi was a regular at Studio 54 in New York. She was a heroin addict and allegedly contracted the virus through a syringe.
- Scientists adopt the name HIV (Human Immunedeficiency Virus), or HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) ), which replaces LAV and HTLV 3.
- Arrival of the first treatment: the antiviral AZT. This molecule turns out to be expensive and very toxic.
- The United Nations creates a first program devoted to the fight against AIDS.
- Second International Conference on AIDS in Paris.
- American model Gia Carangi, 26, is the first female celebrity to die of HIV/AIDS.
- First cases in the Soviet Union and India.
Liberace in 1985.
- Canada stops distributing contaminated blood products.
- Showman Liberace dies of illness.
- President Ronald Reagan makes his first public statement on AIDS, nearly seven years after the disease first appeared, at the Third International Conference in Washington. At that time, more than 27,000 Americans died from it. Some analysts will call his administration's silence “Aidsgate“.
President Ronald Reagan spoke publicly about AIDS for the first time on May 31, 1987.
- The United States closes its borders to immigrants and tourists with AIDS.
- Universal Bill of Rights for the Sick and HIV-Positive.
- The Oprah Winfrey Show airs footage of a Williamson Town Council meeting where residents voice their concerns about HIV/AIDS. A few days earlier, the municipal swimming pool had been closed after a young gay man with the disease had bathed there.
- In Montreal, doctors Réjean Thomas and Clément Oliver founded the Clinique l'Actuel, specializing in the care of people with HIV/AIDS.
- The Government of Quebec, in the first phase of its provincial AIDS strategy, recognizes the need to support the ten community AIDS intervention groups active in Quebec.
- In London, UK, health ministers from dozens of countries meet for the first time to discuss the epidemic.
- Photographer Robert Mapplethorpe dies in Boston of an illness associated with AIDS.
- The Food & United States Drug Administration approves use of drug to treat Kaposi's sarcoma.
- Canada's Health Minister Jake Epp announces Phase 1 of Canada's AIDS Strategy.
- The World Health Organization designates December 1 as World AIDS Day.
- Quebec singer Martine St-Clair launches the song Desire equals danger, words and music by Luc Plamondon and Franck Langolff, which evokes sexuality and love in the time of HIV /AIDS.
Image taken from the video for the song Desire equals danger.
- In New York, the number of new cases from needle sharing exceeds the number of new cases from unprotected sex.
- The effectiveness of AZT is recognized beyond all doubt.
- The 5th International AIDS Conference takes place in Montreal; for the first time, patients take part in a medical congress.
- Creation of the Center québécois de coordination sur le SIDA (CQCS), a government agency whose mandate is to advise the Minister of Health and coordinate government actions.
- DDI (didanosine) tested in Canada.
- Canadian federal government announces compensation for people who contracted AIDS from contaminated blood products.
- Longtime Companion movie released indoors. It is one of the first films to depict the human aspect of the disease.
- Creation of COCQ-sida, which brings together community AIDS organizations in Quebec .
- Several countries are boycotting the International AIDS Conference in San Francisco to protest the US government's policy of closing its borders to people living with HIV/AIDS.
- Former President Reagan apologizes for neglecting the issue of HIV/AIDS while in office.
- First Canadian AIDS conference in Vancouver in 1991.
- Singer Freddie Mercury dies November 24 1991.
- Marketing of the antiviral drug DDC.
- More than 10 million people are living with AIDS worldwide.
- Los Angeles Lakers basketball player Magic Johnson reveals he has HIV.
- Actress Elizabeth Taylor sets up a foundation dedicated to research, in memory of her friend Rock Hudson.
- Journalist Tom Curtis claims that AIDS originated in an anti-polio campaign carried out on hundreds of thousands of Africans in the Belgian Congo in the mid-1950s. The vaccine developed by virologist Hilary Koprowski is said to have been infected with the virus. This thesis, rejected by the pharmaceutical world, was also the subject of a book by journalist Edward Hooper, The River, published in 1999.
- First clinical trials of HAART.
- The red ribbon makes its first public appearance. Jeremy Irons wears it at the Tony Awards.
- French writer, actor and director Cyril Collard dies in Paris. His latest film, Les Nuits fauves, autobiographical, evokes the moods of a person with the disease.
- Actor Anthony Perkins, who played Norman Bates in Psycho< /em> by Alfred Hitchcock, dies at the age of 60.
- Scholars gathered at the 8th International Conference in Amsterdam agree that women are the group most at risk and need more attention in prevention campaigns.
- Over 72,000 people attend a Freddie Mercury tribute show.
- The first vaccines are tested in humans.
- First edition of the Farha Foundation walk, in Montreal. This activity, which will become an annual event, aims to raise funds to improve the quality of care and services offered to people living with HIV/AIDS in Quebec.
- The Canadian government announces the holding of a commission of inquiry into contaminated blood.
- Singer Mitsou undergoes a screening test live on television as part of the program Free studio from Radio-Canada to raise awareness of the risks associated with the disease.
- Tennis legend Arthur Ashe and prima ballerina Rudolf Nureyev die of AIDS.
- The Philadelphia Movieis screened around the world. The film describes an AIDS lawyer's fight against discrimination in his workplace. Actor Tom Hanks, who plays the lawyer, wins an Oscar for his portrayal.
- Tony Kushner's play Angels of America, which depicts the life of New Yorkers stricken by the disease, won the Tony Award for Play of the Year and the Pulitzer Prize for Theater Work of the Year. It will then be transposed into a miniseries (with Meryl Streep and Al Pacino) for TV and opera.
- Benetton launches highly controversial advertising campaign in which it uses a photograph originally published in Lifein 1990. David Kirby's family licensed the company to use it. On his site, Benetton explains that the image titled “Pieta” shows the patient who appears like Jesus, surrounded by his loved ones. Faced with the many critics who blamed Benetton for having exploited David's death, his father Bill recalled that the brand had mainly drawn attention to his fight. The clothing company released other advertisements associated with HIV/AIDS afterwards.
- Tritherapy enters the lexicon at the 11th International AIDS Conference, in Vancouver.
- Time magazine names HIV/AIDS specialist David Ho Man of the Year.
- A first HIV test by urine is approved.
- It is estimated that 90% of people infected with the AIDS virus live in developing countries. Moreover, the disease is spreading at an impressive rate. In fact, 8,500 people are infected every day, according to a World Bank report.
- It is estimated that around 25 million people were infected with AIDS in those years, 14 million of them in sub-Saharan Africa .
- The US CDC reports that the number of new infections is down for the first time in the United States.
- President Bill Clinton announces that the development of a vaccine is a national priority that must achieve success within 10 years.
- The 13th Annual AIDS Conference is held in Durban, South Africa. The location of the conference leaves a strong impression on the 12,000 attendees, as sub-Saharan Africa is considered the “Ground Zero” of the epidemic at this time.
- During this meeting, South African President Thabo Mbeki sowed controversy. He asks researchers to prove that HIV does indeed cause AIDS. Refusing to debate a question that already has a clear answer, over 5,000 researchers sign the Durban Declaration stating the obvious: HIV causes AIDS.
- US President Bill Clinton announces that the HIV/AIDS epidemic is a threat to national security.
- United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS. Member countries sign the Declaration of Commitment which sets out a series of specific, time-bound goals to combat the epidemic.
- Death of baby Nkosi Johnson, a boy born with HIV and become one of the most popular spokespersons on the issue. Nelson Mandela would describe him as an icon of the struggle for life.
- In response to widespread criticism that AIDS drugs are not accessible to people living in poor countries, pharmaceutical companies are selling some discount drugs in some countries.
- China stops denying the existence of an epidemic and sets up an AIDS program.
- The 14th International Conference is held in Barcelona, Spain. Dozens of countries from all continents say they are fighting an epidemic that looks more and more like a global pandemic.
- An experimental AIDS vaccine, tested in Thailand on some 2,500 drug-using patients, proves ineffective.
- The South African government approves a national AIDS treatment plan, which has been called for for years, which plans to make antiretrovirals (ARVs) available to millions of patients.
- Cardinal Alfonso Lopez Trujillo says that talking about condoms as security is like playing Russian roulette.
- UNAIDS criticizes the position of the Catholic Church, saying that, on the technically, the cardinal's statements are false.
- The World Health Organization and UNAIDS are launching a vast plan of 5.5 billion dollars to increase accessibility to medicines.
- Former South African President Nelson Mandela announces that his son has died of AIDS, breaking the silence around the virus in Africa.
- Epidemiologist David Boulos of the Public Health Agency of Canada says new infections among gay men are on the rise again. While they represented only 37% of new cases in 1996 (historic low), they reached 45% in 2005. One factor is pointed out: the new generations do not protect themselves as much.
- A highly resistant form of HIV is identified in New York.
Longtime Companion movie image
Image from Queen's These Are The Days Of Our Lives music video.
Romane Bohringer and Cyril Collard in Les nuits fauves.
Annie Lennox and David Bowie sing Queen's song 'Under Pressure' at the Freddie Mercury Tribute Concert at Wembley Stadium in London on April 20, 1992.
Actor Tom Hanks, who plays an HIV-positive lawyer in the movie Philadelphia, wins an Oscar for his portrayal.
The dancer Rudolf Nureyev< /p>
This photo from a controversial Benetton advertising campaign in the 1990s strikes the imagination. AIDS reaches the family unit: a father at the bedside of his dying son.View larger image
Time magazine names researcher David Ho, a pioneer in HIV treatments, man of the year.
WHO announces that the HIV/AIDS has become the fourth leading cause of death in the world, and the first in Africa. As many as 33 million people are living with the virus, and 14 million have died from it.
Nkosi Johnson died at the age of 12.
Controversial Colombian Cardinal Alfonso Lopez Trujillo died in April 2008.
Former South African President Nelson Mandela attends the funeral of his son Makgatho, who died of AIDS in January 2005.
British singer Annie Lennox is an ambassador for the Joint United Nations Program on HIV (UNAIDS).
- The team of Pr Rafick-Pierre Sékaly, from the University of Montreal, identifies a protein which, once stimulated, would restore the function of T cells, responsible for x27;remove cells infected and rendered dysfunctional by the HIV virus.
- Annie Lennox, along with 23 other singers, including Madonna and Celine Dion, performs Sing, a song to raise funds to fight mother-to-child transmission of the virus in South Africa.
- Time magazine lists the work of University of Manitoba researcher Stephen Moses as one of the 10 most important breakthroughs in medicine in 2007. They showed that circumcision reduced 50% risk of contracting the virus in men who have heterosexual relationships.
The first anti-HIV triple therapy in a daily tablet, ATRIPLA.
- The Régie de l'assurance maladie du Québec (RAMQ) authorizes the treatment against HIV/AIDS ATRIPLA, which consists of taking a single tablet per day.< /li>
- Quebec researchers from McGill University identify two genes that prevent contracting the virus or slow the development of AIDS.
- The 17th World AIDS Conference is held in Mexico City. Dr. Kenneth Mayer of Brown University says young gay and bisexual men who abuse alcohol and use drugs are most likely to transmit the virus in the United States and Canada.
Timothy Ray Brown, also known as the patient from Berlin, did not show signs of the virus for 12 years.
- A test conducted in Africa suggests that a vaginal gel could be effective against HIV transmission.
- Timothy Brown, an HIV-positive man with leukemia who underwent a bone marrow stem cell transplant, has had no traces of the virus in his blood since the operation. The donor carried a genetic mutation that gave him natural protection against the virus.
- The so-called patient from Berlin still has no signs of the virus in his body as of 2019. In 2012, however, virologist Steven Yukl from the University of California, San Francisco claimed to have detected nucleic acid fragments of the virus in his blood, but nothing has been demonstrated and some other experts believe that the sample analyzed was contaminated.
- During a trip to Cameroon, Benedict XVI states that HIV/AIDS is “a tragedy that cannot be overcome by distributing condoms, which may even make the problem worse.” The words of Pope Benedict XVI are considered unacceptable by the scientific community. The editorial of the British medical journal The Lancetaccuses the pope of having distorted scientific truth.
Pope Benedict XVI during the press conference where he said his controversial remarks.
- President Obama announces the lifting of the ban on entering the United States imposed by President Reagan 22 years earlier on people infected with HIV.
- UNAIDS reveals that new infections have fallen by 20% since 1999. Thus, the number of new infections stood at 2.6 million in 2009, compared to 3.1 million in 1999.
- HIV is becoming the leading cause of illness and death among women of reproductive age worldwide, according to the Joint United Nations Program on AIDS, the ;UNAIDS.
- Researchers find that three natural antigens prevent infection of human cells by more than 90% of the varieties of HIV circulating in the world. Even better, researchers are pinpointing the biological mechanism by which these antibodies block the virus with unprecedented efficiency.
The Origins of AIDS book.
- The 2011 UN report notes a decrease in the number of new infections worldwide.
- A clinical trial conducted in the United States shows that giving HIV-positive people the earliest possible treatment with antiretrovirals reduces the risk of transmitting HIV to their HIV-negative partners by 96%.
- Circumcision reduces the risk of HIV infection in men by 76%, shows a French study conducted in South Africa.
- People with HIV can now expect to live as long as others if treated early and effectively, Canadian researchers have shown.
- Taking an antiretroviral pill daily reduces two-thirds the risk of HIV infection among heterosexuals, show two studies from Africa. This “protective” effect had already been established in homosexuals, but it had yet to be confirmed in heterosexuals.
- A Quebec researcher, Dr. Jacques Pépin of the University of Sherbrooke, publishes the book The Origins of AIDS, in which he traces the trail of HIV in Central Africa and shows how, through a combination of circumstances and through negligence, HIV spread to the West.
PrEP reduces the risk of contracting HIV by more than 90%.
- The World AIDS Congress returns to the United States for the first time in 22 years. It is held in Washington.
- Full results of two clinical trials conducted in Africa on serodiscordant heterosexual couples confirm the effectiveness of antiretrovirals in preventing HIV infection.
- The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approves the antiretroviral drug Truvada, the first AIDS prevention treatment for people at risk. This drug, called pre-exposure trophy (PrEP),
- Study shows that people with HIV and AIDS are four times more likely than others to suffer a fatal heart attack.
- An American girl from Mississippi who was born with HIV transmitted by her mother and treated immediately after birth shows no traces of the virus for more than two years, but eventually they reappear in her blood. His case had raised hopes for ultra-early treatment of HIV-positive newborns that could help cure them.
- The film Dallas Buyer Club, directed by the Quebecer Jean-Marc Vallée, is inspired by the story of Ron Woodroof, creator of the first of the twelve clubs which enabled HIV-positive Americans to obtain foreign antiretroviral drugs.
Dallas Buyers Club, by Jean-Marc Vallée
- In Boston, two HIV-positive men who underwent a bone marrow transplant to treat leukemia showed no trace of the virus for several months, but it eventually reappeared.
- Six scientists associated with HIV research, including Dutchman Joep Lange, die in the crash of Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 over Ukraine en route to the Melbourne conference in Australia.
Actor Charlie Sheen
- UN announces 15.8 million people receiving antiviral treatment , which is more than double the number in 2010.
- Researchers say that antiretroviral therapy is very effective in preventing the sexual transmission of HIV from a person living with HIV to an uninfected partner, when the virus is undetectable in the blood.
- Health Canada approves the prescription of Truvada, which has been used for several years to treat HIV-positive people, to reduce the risk of HIV transmission. PrEP (commonly known as PrEP for pre-exposure prophylaxis) is 85% to 99% effective.
- Actor Charlie Sheen announces he has the virus.
- Launch of the international campaign U=U (Undetectable = Untransmittable) which means undetectable and untransmittable.
Singer Elton John.
- An extracellular barricade at the origin of the infectivity of HIV is discovered. According to a team from the Institut Pasteur, the virus encourages infected white blood cells to synthesize an extracellular mesh that houses its viral particles. She believes that this matrix protects infected blood from the immune system and antiretroviral drugs.
- Harvard University awards the title of Humanist of the Year to British singer Elton John for his involvement in the fight against AIDS. Since 1992, his foundation has raised over $500 million to help carriers.
- The improvement of treatments against AIDS would today ensure that the youngest people infected with the virus have a “normal” life expectancy. Researchers at the University of Bristol in the UK have found that a person in their 20s with the virus can live up to 10 years longer if their antiretroviral treatment started in 2010 rather than 1996.
- The immunotherapy treatments usually used against cancer make it possible to reduce the quantity of cells infected by HIV/AIDS in people on triple therapy, show work carried out at the Research Center of the University of Montreal Hospital Center (CRCHUM).
- A vaccine against HIV/AIDS has been successfully tested in rodents, succeeding where other attempts have failed in generating a powerful immune system response. This new vaccine strategy was developed by American scientists at the Scripps Research Institute in San Diego, California. If these results are confirmed in humans, they would represent the most important breakthrough in the fight against HIV/AIDS in the last 30 years, believe biophysicist Jiang Zhu and his colleagues. They could actually lead to the development of an HIV/AIDS vaccine.
- Trials of weekly HIV/AIDS treatment in pigs have yielded encouraging results, US researchers say.
A second person, identified like “the patient from London”, appears to be in lasting remission from infection with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, after stopping treatment. An important step in the fight against this disease which kills almost a million people worldwide every year.
- Canada approves first monthly injection of HIV drug, Cabenuva.
- INSTi self-test kit becomes first HIV self-test to be approved in Canada.
- Timothy Ray Brown, the American originally known as the “Berlin patient”, dies of cancer.
- A man with the virus who has been in remission for more than a year could be the first adult patient to recover from the disease without needing a bone marrow transplant.
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An HIV self-diagnosis kit.
- The It's series a sin tells the story of a group of young British adults whose lives are turned upside down by the onset of HIV/AIDS.
The actors of the series It's a sin.
- The pharmaceutical Johnson & Johnson and partners announce that mid-term results from the clinical trial of their HIV vaccine candidate Imbokodo in young women in sub-Saharan Africa were inconclusive.
- A 30-year-old woman from Esperanza, Argentina, is believed to be the second known case of a person whose immune system cleared of HIV without antiretroviral therapy or a bone marrow transplant.
- The first doses of an AIDS virus vaccine using messenger RNA technology have been administered to humans, US biotech company Moderna and the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative have announced .
- Virologist Luc Montagnier, Nobel Prize in Medicine and co-discoverer of HIV, dies at 89.
- An American, nicknamed the patient from New York, becomes the third person to be cured of HIV/AIDS thanks to a new technique for transplanting stem cells from umbilical cord blood.
- Montréal is hosting the International AIDS Conference for the second time .