Tamara KUKHARENKO, “FACTS”
C post on the 17th of month of Tammuz (in 2020 it was on 9 July) the Jews begins three weeks of mourning. It will end with the post 9 of the month AV (July 30, 2020).
This is the time when the Jews mourn the fallen on misfortune, is also called “bein ha-metsarim”, which means “surrounded by troubles,” or “between the narrows”. And the harbingers of all these evils were the events that took place in different periods of Jewish history, but it is the 17th of Tammuz.
The first such event occurred on 17 Tamuz in the year of the Exodus in year 2448 from creation (1312 BCE). Then Moses received from God the tablets of the Covenant for the Jewish people descended from mount Sinai. Approaching the camp of the Israelites, he saw with horror that his people dancing around the Golden calf, thereby committing the gravest sin of idolatry. And here is the text of the commandments, applied to the stone slabs, began to disappear, and the tablets, absolutely had no weight when God handed them to Moses regained their natural weight. Moses was not able to hold them and thrown to the ground. Thus was broken the first tablets of the Covenant.
The court of Moses over those who deliberately indulged in idolatry were severe — they were subjected to one of three executions. Those who knew exactly what idolatry is the death penalty (if there were witnesses, confirming that the guilty were warned about this outcome), slew with the sword (the punishment prescribed by the Torah for “outcast of the city” — the city in which its inhabitants-the Jews turned aside to idolatry). Those who have committed this sin, but were not warned about the consequences, was punished by the heavenly court — have died from the epidemic sent by God. And those whose participation in the worship of the calf was not proven and who were not warned about the consequences of committing such sin, subjected to a special test with water. As soon as the subjects drank the water, their bellies swollen those guilty and innocent, nothing happened (by the way, law of Torah, the same test was subjected women suspected of adultery).
Nearly nine centuries, the 17th of Tammuz 3336 year, when the children of Israel again were guilty before God, starting to forget the Torah, the soldiers surrounded Jerusalem army Nevuchadnetzar Babylonian king (Nebuchadnezzar II) destroyed part of the city wall. As a result they lost the opportunity to deliver in the First temple sacrificial animals. The Cohanim (priestly class among the ancient Jews, were considered descendants of Aaron) are left with no other choice but to stop in the temple “Tamid” — the obligatory daily sacrifices. (Strictly speaking, the city wall was breached on 9 Tammuz, not 17, and in the course of a week besieged in the temple even managed to get the sheep to convert Tamid. But to not overload this month’s posts, the Jewish sages established the Tammuz is two posts, one on the 17th.) And three weeks after cessation of sacrifices, the 9th of AV, the temple was set on fire.
In the year 3828, during the time of the Second temple, the walls of Jerusalem on 17 Tammuz has collapsed under the onslaught of the Romans.
Apostolos (Apostolos), the Governor of the king Antiochus determined to destroy the spiritual heritage of the Jews had publicly burned in that day, the Torah that was the signal for the persecution of the Jews and became one of the main causes of the Maccabean revolt.
And then at the order of Antioch in the sanctuary of the temple was a statue of a pagan idol. (According to other sources, it was done in the days of the First temple, but also the 17th of Tammuz, the king of the Judah Menashe. Although Menashe was the son of the most illustrious of the kings of Judah — Hezekiah, unlike his father, he became famous for being “flooded Jerusalem with innocent blood”, worshipped idols and did many other bad deeds.) Then followed the destruction of the Second temple and the persecution of the Jewish people.
In memory of these disasters on 17 Tamuz (recall that in the year 2020 — July 9) is set to post, which begins with a sunup — an hour and 12 minutes before sunrise and ends 20 minutes after sunset with the appearance of the sky the first stars. During this post all day, the Jews do not eat or drink. Read specially written for the day of selichot (from the word slicha — apology, apology. The so-called prayers and special hymns religious content), a passage from the Torah in which Moses begs for mercy on Israel after the sin of the Golden calf and worshiping and other religious books.
As in the days of mourning first and foremost mourn the destruction of the temple, it is customary to study its structure and the laws of the Torah devoted to the construction of the temple.
And the 17th of Tammuz, and the following mourning period are considered so unfavourable to the Jews, that during this time not only should abandon decision-making on any business matters, but, more importantly, we must also care about your safety: to avoid any places that are at least hypothetically can be dangerous. So, it is advisable to abandon swimming pools, beaches and not Hiking. Avoid deserted places, and even indicated the time to be there especially dangerous — about 10:30 to 16:30. If there is no urgency, it is desirable to move to a more favorable time and surgery.
Be cautious about during this period for such a serious matter as marriage.
In some Jewish communities do not marry during the entire mourning period, others do not register marriages with 1 on the 9th of AV (from 22 July to 30 July). But Dating with a view to subsequent marriage (shidukh) and engagement with a small meal is permitted.
Those who got married before the 17th of Tammuz, is allowed to have a celebratory meal “seven blessings”. Resolved and a meal on the occasion of circumcision, bar mitzvah (the achievement of a Jewish boy or girl religious majority), the redemption of the firstborn, or housewarming. But they should take place without musical accompaniment.
In the days of mourning is not customary to listen to music and have a dance. And it’s not just about live performance — banned cassettes, CDs, music radio. You can listen to the singing and the choir, but to sing is not necessary. Allowed to make money with music lessons. For income up to 1 AV (but not in a day of fasting) a Jew is permitted to play for a non-Jew.
1 ava restrictions tightened: under the prohibition of meat and wine (except Saturdays and feast established in honor of the commandment), you cannot buy and wear new clothes to wash and iron (the only exception is for children’s clothes up to five-six years), shave, get a haircut or cut by anyone, even children. In the last week before the 9th of AV to cut their nails. To bathe in these days is allowed only in the hygienic or medical purposes, but not for pleasure.
Generally 1 ABA need to avoid anything that can bring joy and pleasure. For example, not allowed to work in gardens, parks and flower beds, you can not buy gold and silver jewelry, including engagement rings, and luxury items. But the items needed in the home, such as a car, washing machine, air conditioner, etc. luxury items are not relevant and, therefore, they can be purchased.
And during all days of mourning, it is impossible to physically punish children even for the most serious offenses and the most careless of their students.
Recall, from 18 to 20 September 2020 will celebrate the Jewish New year Rosh Hashanah. Usually on holiday in Uman Hasidim come. But in pandemic coronavirus this year in Uman, do not wait.