Scientists have figured out how the first stars were formed: they were all part of cosmic pancakes
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A new study suggests that the first stars may not have formed individually, but as tiny patches of giant, pancake-like sheets.
In a new paper for The Astrophysical Journal Letters, which has yet to be fully peer-reviewed, an international team of scientists proposes a new theory for the formation of the first stars. Scientists believe they may not have formed individually, but as tiny patches of giant, pancake-like sheets. Thus, this would lead to the appearance of really giant stars that the Webb Space Telescope can detect, writes Space.
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Most of our Universe, according to scientists, is occupied by mysterious dark matter. But it is still not known what it consists of.
Cold dark matter
According to the theory of cold dark matter, which is the basis for the current cosmological model of the universe, this kind of dark matter consists of some kind of exotic particle that usually moves much slower than the speed of light. But this theory has its drawbacks.
For example, the cold dark matter model predicts much more matter at the centers of galaxies than astronomers observe, and predicts many more small satellite galaxies than can be detected.
One way to address this shortcoming is to make cold dark matter a bit “fuzzy”. If dark matter is made up of incredibly tiny particles, then it will be light enough for its quantum mechanical wavelike nature to manifest itself on a large scale. Thus, instead of these particles existing as separate points, they are scattered across regions of space up to 1000 light-years across. Thus, the fuzzy structure of dark matter does not allow it to build structures smaller than 1000 light years.
< h2>Exotic dark matter
In a new article, scientists describe their model of the early Universe and the appearance of the first stars. They admitted that dark matter is “fuzzy” and this changes the evolution of ordinary matter and the development of stars.
Dark matter is needed to form stars and galaxies. Since the universe is constantly expanding, gravity is needed for a bunch of gas to join together, become very dense and form a star as a result of fusion. But there isn't enough ordinary matter in the universe for that to happen. A kind of gravitational tractor is dark matter, which attracts enough ordinary matter to form stars and galaxies. Therefore, if you change the properties of dark matter, then the evolution of stars and galaxies will also change.
Scientists' simulations have shown that when dark matter becomes fuzzy, it changes how stars form. In the cold dark matter model, stars first appear deep inside small patches scattered throughout the cosmos. But fuzzy dark matter first forms giant two-dimensional pancake-like sheets.
The pancake then quickly breaks up into separate sections, which eventually turn into stars. But because these pancakes have so much mass and collapse so quickly, the very first stars turn out to be much larger than the cold dark matter model predicts. These first stars can reach a mass that is a million times that of the Sun. While cold dark matter can create stars hundreds of times the mass of the Sun.
According to scientists, because the first stars are so huge, they cannot exist for a long time and explode supernovae. When this happened and the cosmic pancakes disappeared, only after that the normal formation of stars began and the Universe became as we know it now, scientists say.
Although the Webb Space Telescope will not be able to see these first stars, it can get images of some of the first galaxies that may have retained the remnants of these first stars. And if he does not see them, then this may confirm the new theory of scientists that the first stars appeared very quickly and disappeared just as quickly. Although there is still a chance to detect at least the radiation of the very first supernovae.
Focus already wrote that scientists tested Einstein's theory of relativity on a cosmic scale and found inconsistencies in it.