Scientists will be able to prove an alternative hypothesis of the initial state of the universe

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Scientists will be able to prove an alternative hypothesis of initial state of the Universe

A new spacecraft for studying the CMB will be able to prove the inflationary theory of the initial state of the Universe.

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The earliest history of the universe is still a set of theoretical speculations and hypotheses, although there is a standard model of a hot universe that explains how everything happened at the very beginning of the existence of the cosmos. But this model has its drawbacks, and this problem is solved by the inflationary model of the Universe – the hypothesis of a slightly different initial state of the cosmos and its ever faster and faster expansion. It is this inflationary theory that the new spacecraft for studying the cosmic microwave background LiteBIRD will be able to prove, Forbes writes.

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Scientists already know a lot about how our universe came into being and what happened next. In particular, it is now known that one of the evidence of the earliest processes in space is the CMB, which is still left 13.8 billion years after the Big Bang.

Nevertheless, the study of the CMB is complicated process due to insufficient development of technologies. Despite this, cosmologists continue to study temperature fluctuations in the hope of obtaining new data about the early Universe.

Scientists will be able to prove an alternative hypothesis of initial states of the universe

Scientists will be able to prove an alternative hypothesis for the initial state of the Universe

“Up to a limit of 380,000 years after the Big Bang, photons were constantly scattered, so it’s difficult to observe the CMB. Only when the universe cooled enough that matter separated, photons were able to freely propagate in space,” says Giorgio Savini, from University College London.< /p>

Until now, CMB instruments, both from the Earth and from space, have usually tracked minute fluctuations in temperature. But further investigation of the CMB will require new technologies to search for the so-called B-mode polarization.

If astronomers can detect it, it will confirm the inflationary theory. That is, the exponential expansion of space-time within the first trillion trillionth of a second after the Big Bang. A way to measure this polarization will allow scientists to recover information about what happened in the darkest era of space for the first almost 400 thousand years.

There is almost nothing, Savini says, other than primordial gravitational waves that can create B-mode polarization on very large scales. According to him, the primary gravitational waves will polarize the wavelengths of photons, so the CMB will have a very specific character.

The future spacecraft, called LiteBIRD, will look for quantum fluctuations caused by the very inflation of the universe. After launching in 2027, LiteBIRD will try to detect the primary B-mode signal by observing space for 3 years.

Scientists will be able to prove an alternative hypothesis for the initial state of the Universe

Scientists will be able to prove an alternative hypothesis of the initial state of the Universe

The device will have to detect the CMB, which will show the presence of gravitational waves caused by inflation. LiteBIRD will be able to create new CMB polarization maps with unprecedented accuracy. It is hoped that LiteBIRD will detect signs of B-mode polarization in the CMB.

“Detecting B-mode is the holy grail, and that alone proves inflation,” says Savini.

< p>If LiteBIRD or future ground-based CMB telescopes actually detect this B-mode polarization, it will be a new way to access information about the earliest stages of the cosmos.

If this discovery happens, it will help scientists to understand the nature of the intermediate epoch in the early Universe, from a few months after the start of inflationary expansion to several thousand years after the Big Bang.

As Focus already wrote, scientists told how much there is a mysterious dark matter in the universe.