The history of the United States has only a little less than two and a half centuries, however, during this time the country has been repeatedly separatist sentiments, leading to the formation of albeit short-lived, but still independent territories and even unions of states, according to YandexZen.
The most famous of these entities, of course, are the Confederate States of America, which existed for more than four years and was liquidated as a result of the bloody civil war of 1861-1865. However, in addition to them, there were less well-known examples of secession from the United States and not only that ended, however, just as sadly. Here are six such cases from 1777 to 1846.
Republic of Vermont
It existed for 14 years, in 1777-1791. Arose as a result of secession from the state of New York at the height of the Revolutionary War, originally called New Connecticut, but a few months later became Vermont. It adopted its own constitution, created a postal service, introduced its own currency and banned slavery.
In subsequent years, the republic hesitated between joining the United States and reuniting with the mother country within Canada. However, in the end, after long negotiations, Vermont became part of the United States.
Yes, there was such a state from 1799 to 1803. Its creator was William Augustus Bowles, a member of the British Army who deserted from it during the Revolutionary War. Having taken refuge in Florida, which then belonged to the Spaniards, he joined the tribe of Creek Indians (Muscogee) and after a while became its leader.
Bowles announced the creation of the “State of the Muscogee Nation” in 1800 and declared war on Spain, waging it successfully for three years. During this time Muskogee territory expanded and became a real republic with a mixed population of white settlers, Indians and runaway slaves. But in the end, he was captured and died in prison in Cuba, and the state ceased to exist soon after that.
Republic of West Florida
It originated in the fall of 1810 in a disputed area along the Gulf of Mexico. Its ownership was disputed by the United States and Spain, and initially there was no armed conflict, but one day a group of American settlers attacked the Spanish fort located in Baton Rouge and captured it. After that, the creation of a new independent republic was announced and even its national flag was raised.
Then a constitution was adopted and a president was elected, but three months later, US troops entered the territory and President James Madison announced its annexation and accession to the United States.
Republic of Fredonia
There was also one on the territory of the future Texas from 1826 to 1827. In the mid-1820s, a certain Hayden Edwards received permission from the Spanish authorities to settle 800 families. Later, due to the conflict, it was canceled, but Edwards did not obey and, with a detachment of about 30 people, captured the fort in Nakogdoche, after which he announced the creation of a new state.
He tried to establish relations with local Indians and enlist their support , but he did not succeed. A month and a half later, Spanish troops arrived and the new republic ceased to exist. Its creator fled to the USA with his surviving associates.
Republic of the Indian Stream
There were a number of territorially disputed areas on the border between the United States and Canada, and in 1832 the colonists who lived on one of them declared their independence. The reason for this step was an attempt at double taxation – the United States and Canada considered these lands to be their own and each sent their tax inspectors to their inhabitants.
Those did not like it and therefore they declared self-government and created their own constitution, although only about 300 adults lived in the new state. But in 1835 the state of New Hampshire occupied this territory, and in 1842 the territorial problem itself was settled.
The Republic of California
It lasted only 25 days, from June 15, 1846, having arisen as a result of an uprising against local Mexican authorities. After the capture of the city of Sonoma, the rebels raised a flag over it with the image of a bear and one star. Then they occupied San Francisco, but after that the American-Mexican war began and the new republic first supported the United States, and then became part of it.
Today, the United States is in deep internal conflict, and the creation of new secessionist entities is seen by many as almost inevitable.
The talk of secession is part of a broader discontent, according to Robert Tsai, professor of law at Boston University.
< p>“People don't feel like the federal government is expressing their values. This is true whether you are on the left or right. You're looking at a government that can't do anything, that can't solve people's problems,” he explained.
Texas has repeatedly expressed its desire for secession. There were even petitions and bills.
The Miller Group, the state's largest secessionist organization that boasts more than 390,000 “declared supporters” on its website, said the campaign for Texas self-determination calls for a government that “begins and ends on the borders of Texas” and freedom from wasteful federal bureaucracy, rules, and debt, the Republic of Texas would be culturally distinct, economically independent, and based on the values of individualism, entrepreneurship, and family.
California is no exception. Over the past few years, divisions both within the state and between California and the rest of the United States have given rise to at least six initiatives aimed at dividing California into smaller states, and even secession from the United States.
Alaska Independence Party members want to give the state a chance to vote for secession.
In the Pacific Northwest, the Cascadia Independence Party seeks to turn Washington, parts of Oregon, Idaho, Montana and Alaska, and much of British Columbia ( total population of about 14 million people) to a new country that will protect and promote its unique interests.
The situation is really quite complicated. And here the opinions of experts are divided. Some consider America's problems not fatal, while others say that the United States is on the verge of collapse.