'Spooky Action at a Distance' Could Spawn a Parallel Universe: How It Works

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Any new universe can be created as a result of any quantum interaction.

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Some interpretations of quantum mechanics suggest that our entire universe can be described by one universal wave function that is constantly splitting up and increasing in number. This creates a completely new reality for every possible quantum interaction. But how can this be explained in the publication of Space.

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Matter in the form of a wave

Louis de Broglie, one of the founders of quantum mechanics, was the first to state that matter can have the properties of a wave. He argued that every subatomic particle has a wave associated with it, just as light can behave both as a particle and as a wave.

This idea was soon confirmed by other physicists during experiments with electron scattering . But the way electrons were scattered was more characteristic of a wave than of a particle. But scientists have a question: what is a matter wave and what does it look like?

One of the creators of quantum mechanics, Erwin Schrödinger, believed that all particles in the universe are in the form of a wave. But subsequent experiments showed that although the electron behaved like a wave during its flight to the target, when it reached it, it landed as a single compact particle, so it could not be physically stretched in space.

Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics

Therefore, another interpretation of quantum mechanics appeared, which was called the Copenhagen Interpretation, developed by Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg.

In this interpretation, the wave property of matter or the wave function does not actually exist. It's just a convenient mathematical way that is used to describe the probability cloud in quantum mechanics where one might find a subatomic particle the next time one observes.

But it is not clear how the wave function is transformed from a cloud of probabilities before being measured in its absence during observations. Perhaps the wave function has some other properties.

Particles and their wave functions

Later, scientists came to the conclusion that what we call a measurement is actually just a long series of quantum particles and wave functions interacting with other quantum particles and wave functions.

If you build a detector and send electrons into it, for example, at the subatomic level, the electron will not know that it is being measured. Each individual particle gets its own wave function, that's all. All particles and all wave functions simply interact as usual, and we can use the tools of quantum mechanics to predict their future behavior.

But quantum particles have an interesting property because of their wave function. When two particles interact, they don't just collide with each other. For a short time, their wave functions intersect. When this happens, there can no longer be two separate wave functions. Instead, there should be a single wave function that describes both particles at the same time.

Spooky Action at a Distance Could Spawn a Parallel Universe: How It Works

Quantum entanglement

When particles move apart, they still retain this single wave function. Physicists call this process quantum entanglement. Albert Einstein called it “creepy action at a distance”.

If you repeat all the measurements, then you get a series of entanglements from overlapping wave functions. That is, every particle in the universe gets entangled with every other particle. With each new entanglement, there is one wave function that describes all the combined particles. Thus, there is a universal wave function that describes the entire Universe.

Many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics

Such conclusions were made by scientists who proposed the Many Worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics. In quantum mechanics, it is impossible to be sure exactly what a particle will do in the future. In this interpretation, every time a quantum particle interacts with another quantum particle, the universal wave function is divided into several parts, that is, parallel Universes appear, in each of which there are different results of the particle's behavior.

Parallel Universes

That is, thanks to the entanglement of quantum particles with each other, you can get many copies of our Universe, which are created all the time. And all these Universes are the same, except for a slight difference in some random quantum process.

It turns out that at the moment, while you are reading this text, at the same time, multiple exact copies of you are doing the same in parallel reality. But with small quantum deviations.

About quantum mechanics and what quantum entanglement is Focus already wrote due to the fact that three physicists received this year's Nobel Prize just for experiments with entangled photons.