Tamara KUKHARENKO, “FACTS”
June 29, Roman Catholics and Orthodox Christians who use the revised Julian calendar, celebrate one of the most ancient Christian holidays — the celebration of the Holy apostles Peter and Paul. (The first information about this holiday treat year 258, that is, it arose even before it was established the liturgical celebration of Christmas. And then began to spread to other churches.)
The history of the holiday
In the IV century in Rome on June 29 in honor of this celebration already was corrected three offices — in St. Peter’s Basilica (Italian. Вasilica di San Pietro) — in those days it was located on the site of the present St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome; the Basilica of St. Paul outside the walls (Italian. Basilica di San Paolo fuori le Mura; San Paolo-Fuori-Le-Mura) and in the catacombs of St. Sebastian (ital. Catacombe di San Sebastiano), where during the attacks on Rome hid the relics of these saints, more than any other served the faith of Christ.
The Apostle Peter was the first of the twelve disciples, called by Jesus Christ. Before meeting with the Teacher his name was Simon (“God has heard”), together with his brother he was engaged in fishing in Genisaretskiy the lake in Galilee. But from Christ he received the name Cephas (in lat. Peter, which means “stone”). And he really became the rock on which the Lord created his Church, who gave the keys of the Kingdom of Heaven. After the descent of the Holy spirit, Peter tirelessly preached the doctrine of Christ, he performed miracles: raised the dead, and even his shadow healed people from the most severe diseases. He was the head of the apostles, his work was convened the first Council of Jerusalem. In the New Testament includes two of his Message. It is also believed that the main source of Mark’s gospel was exactly the memories of the Apostle Peter (Mark — disciple from the seventy, called by his interpreter). It is considered that the Apostle Peter for the past 25 years of his life governed the Church of Rome. He was persecuted for the faith, he was thrown into prison and eventually he was martyred on the cross. This occurred approximately in the year 65, during the reign of Nero, which began the persecution of Christians. Considering himself unworthy to die the same death which took his Teacher, Peter asked to be crucified upside down.
Very different class were treated Paul (his Hebrew name Saul). He was born in Tarsus of Cilicia, into a Jewish family and was a Roman citizen by birth. Paul was well educated, successful, earned a living sewing tents — craft, respected in the Roman Empire. Raised in a Pharisaic family, he perceived that spread like wildfire after the Descent of the Holy spirit the doctrine of Christ as heresy, became an ardent opponent of Christianity and a persecutor of his followers. All changed the meeting of Paul with the Jesus Christ of the implacable persecutor of Christians he became a great preacher of this doctrine, who visited with the aim of spreading many cities and countries. He was constantly persecuted and dangers, but their labors did not leave. Peru belong to Paul’s 14 Epistles included in the New Testament, he is rightly considered the first Christian theologian. In the end, once in Rome, Paul had with Peter explained to the people the doctrine of Christ, baptized them. And, according to some sources, the same day the Apostle Peter was martyred for his faith as a Roman citizen he was beheaded with a sword (according to other sources, Paul died the same day as Peter, but with a difference per year).
Link 29 Jun — day celebration of the apostles Peter and Paul — not only with the date of their death. In fact, it is the date of transfer of the relics of these great saints: June 29, 258, during the reign of the Emperor Valerian, the relics of the apostles were transferred to the catacombs of San Sebastiano to protect them from desecration during the persecution. But over time, this event is forgotten, and June 29 was the day of the martyrdom of Peter and Paul.
The Roman Church considers the apostles Peter and Paul, for its patrons, and the Pope — successor of Peter, which in Catholicism is traditionally considered the first visible head of the whole Catholic Church, that is, the first Pope.
A Catholic town and even country think of the Holy apostles Peter and Paul, for its patrons. A special place is one of them Rome. It is not surprising that the Eternal city is celebrating this celebration with a special scale. As with almost all Catholic countries, in Italy, 29 Jun — day.
But in fact, in Rome the festival starts already on June 28 when in St. Peter’s Basilica, the Pope dresses by medieval master of Arnolfo di Cambio’s bronze statue of this Apostle in the luxurious papal garments red. Having kissed the foot of the statue of Peter, the Pope puts on his garments, and on his head he places the sign of the papal supremacy — the tiara representing the crown, three crown which means Rome, the Christian world and spiritual sovereignty.
On the finger of the statue of Peter is put on the ring of the fisherman is a ring with the image of Peter throwing a fishing net from a boat. Such rings are designed to remind you that the Pope is the successor of the Apostle Peter, made, usually, of gold for each individual of the Pope. And in case of his death or abdication of this personalized ring is destroyed. At the request of Pope Francis and his ring in order to save made of gold plated silver.
In this day consecrate pallii (lat. pallium — a cover) — so-called narrow strips of white wool embroidered with six black, red or purple crosses, three of which are decorated with gold eagle with precious stones. The next day they handed the patriarchs and bishops as a sign of unity of the Universal Church.
To the day of the patron saints directly to the area of Peter “stretches” a rich floral carpet. And in the evening on the Tiber is a traditional regatta. Then, at sunset, a procession carries the relic of St. Paul’s — chain, consisting of 14 iron links, which he was shackled in prison, and which is constantly located in the Basilica of St. Paul outside the walls.
And by nightfall, you will admire the special lighting of the dome of St. Peter’s Basilica and unforgettable fireworks show at Castel Sant’angelo (Castel Sant’angelo).
The city also hosts various concerts and festivities.
And the next day, June 30, triple the celebrations in honor of the Apostle Paul. Usually, this day the people of Rome prefer to spend in beautiful surroundings of the town, arranging picnics and visiting places associated with the apostles Peter and Paul.
No less lavishly celebrated this holiday in Catholic Portugal.
Highlights a variety of festive events, residents of a small town Seixas on the river Tagus. Here and the parades and processions, and animation, and fairs involving craftsmen. In short, citizens are having fun and enjoying yourself.
And the inhabitants of the town of Porto de Mós (Porto de Mos), whose patron is St. Peter, not tired to glorify his heavenly patron for almost ten days from 24 June to 3 July.
Celebrate the June 29 feast of saints Peter and Paul Orthodox Bulgariansliving according to the revised Julian calendar. This day in Bulgaria is called Petrovden. Here still preserved the old folk traditions, especially in rural areas. Of course, all believers knew that the apostles Peter and Paul are brothers is that in spirit, but in the view of ordinary people, these two saints were so linked that was considered almost like blood brothers. According to popular belief, Peter is the steward of Heaven, guarding the garden of Eden. And Paul is his older brother, which is subject to natural elements — thunder, hail and floods. To this day in many areas to Express a revered Holy special tribute to mark the end of apostles ‘ fast, and to celebrate the occasion, early in the morning hostess in the coop chooses “Peter’s chicken”, designed for the offering to “sacrifice” the Holy Ghost. A meal out of it and just picked a few early apples — “Petrovac” it refers to the consecration of the Church.
And although this year the pandemic coronavirus. you may make some adjustments in the celebration of this one of the most popular summer Christian holidays, religious people will always find an opportunity to pray to the Holy apostles Peter and Paul, to commend their labours to spread the gospel, the establishment and development of the Church of Christ.
Earlier “FACTS” were told as Catholics in different countries celebrate the Nativity of John the Baptist.
See also: Feast of the Immaculate Heart of Mary for Catholics: what is the celebration