The most important discoveries in history: what inventions changed the world

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The most important discoveries in history: what inventions changed the world

Focus collected the top 12 most life-changing human inventions, after which our the present and the future have changed forever.

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In the history of mankind there were many great discoveries that changed the world, which contributed to the development of civilization for thousands of years. From the discovery of fire, the wheel and penicillin to the most advanced developments in the field of artificial intelligence, drones and solar panels. Focus has collected the most significant discoveries in the history of mankind, which still continue to change our world for the better.

The most important discoveries in stories: what inventions changed the world

The most important discoveries in history: what inventions changed the world

The most important discoveries in history: fire

The most important discoveries in stories: what inventions changed the world

The most important discoveries in history: what inventions changed the world

It is believed that Homo Sapience first began to kindle fires on their own about 1.42 million years ago. Scientists made such conclusions on the basis of finds discovered at the archaeological site of an ancient man in East Africa, known as Chesovanya.

The fact that people learned how to make fires of their own accord was a key turning point in the history of Homo Sapience, which forever separated people from animals.

The most important discoveries in history: the wheel

< p>Most important discoveries in history: what inventions changed the world

The most important discoveries in history: what inventions changed the world

Before, in 3500 BC. people invented the wheel, our species was very limited in moving on land. According to Hartwick College anthropology professor David Anthony, the invention of the wheel itself was not the hardest part of the job.

The real puzzle began when it came time to attach the fixed platform to the rotating cylinder.

“The wheel and axle concept was a really brilliant idea,” says Professor Anthony.

The hard work has paid off and the resulting wheeled carts made agriculture and trade easier. Wheeled carts made it easier to transport goods as well as travel long distances.

Wheels remain vital in today's world, and can be found in everything from watches and cars to giant turbines.

Most important discoveries in history: nails

The most important discoveries in stories: what inventions changed the world

The most important discoveries in history: what inventions changed the world

This key (or “nail”?) invention became possible thanks to the 2000-year history of Ancient Rome, where people first learned how to cast metal and give it the desired shape. But before the advent of nails, wooden structures had to be erected by geometrically joining planks, which took a lot of time and effort.

Until the end of the 18th century, nails were exclusively handmade, when a blacksmith heated a square iron rod and then hammered it on four sides to create a sharp point.

Machines for making nails appeared between the 1790s and the early 1800s. After the English inventor Henry Bessemer developed the process of mass-smelting steel, the iron nails of the past gradually disappeared.

But the invention of the screw is usually attributed to the Greek scientist Archimedes – who lived in the 3rd century BC

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The most important discoveries in history: the compass

The most important discoveries in stories: what inventions changed the world

The most important discoveries in history: what inventions changed the world

Ancient navigators knew how to use the stars to navigate, but this method had a significant drawback: he did not work during the day or in cloudy weather at night.

The first compass was created in China during the Han Dynasty between the 2nd and 1st centuries BC. This compass was created from magnetite, a naturally magnetized iron ore. Its amazing properties have been studied by ancient scientists for centuries. But for the first time, the compass was used directly for navigation during the Song Dynasty, between the 11th and 12th centuries.

A little later, the technology came to the West, where it allowed sailors to freely move far from land, opening up new shores and paving new routes for trade.

The Most Important Discoveries in History: Gravity

The most important discoveries in history: what inventions changed the world

The most important discoveries in history: what inventions changed the world

It is known that the most important discovery of Issac Newton was gravity. Legend has it that an English physicist discovered the earth's attraction (gravity) after an apple fell on his head. Unfortunately, this story is only partially true. The sight of an apple falling from a tree prompted Newton to ask what kind of force attracts objects to the ground in a straight line, and not in a curved path, like, for example, a falling cannonball.

The answer to that question was gravity, the force that pulls objects towards each other. And the further apart these objects are, the weaker this force will be.

Subsequently, Newton's work and his definition of gravity helped to explain and study many physical phenomena: from the flight path of a baseball to the Earth's orbit around the Sun.

In 1687 Newton published his famous book “The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy”. In it, the physicist formed the law of universal gravitation and the three laws of motion. This work became the basis of modern physics.

Most Important Discoveries in History: The Earth revolves around the Sun

The most important discoveries in history: what inventions changed the world

The most important discoveries in history: what inventions changed the world

The most important discovery of Galileo was that the Earth revolves around the Sun, and not vice versa, as was previously believed.

Italian physicist and astronomer Galileo Galilei made the most important discovery of his life shortly after the Netherlands invented first telescope.

The astronomer learned to make his own powerful telescopes and began to observe the phases of the planet Venus. At the same time, Galileo noticed that the planet goes through the same phases as the moon. Based on this observation, Galileo came to the conclusion that the central point in the solar system should be the Sun, not the Earth.

The most important discoveries in history: the printing press

The most important discoveries in history: what inventions changed the world

The most important discoveries in history: what inventions changed the world

Between 1440 and 1450, the German engineer Johannes Gutenberg invented a manual printing press. He was not a pioneer in this area – before Gutenberg, printing presses (though not so perfect) already existed in China and Korea. The Gutenberg machine was more convenient to use and allowed the use of a large number of metal plates and movable characters.

Thanks to this simplified process, printing presses greatly increased the speed of making book copies, which led to a rapid and widespread dissemination of knowledge.

Printing became a real revolution in the dissemination of knowledge: in just 50 years, by 1500 in Western Europe printed about 40 thousand publications with a total circulation of 20 million volumes.

In addition, the printing presses provided greater access to the Bible, which led to various alternative interpretations of the Scriptures. For example, an interpretation of Martin Luther and his “95 Theses” appeared. It was printed in hundreds of thousands of copies and was the beginning of the Protestant Reformation.

The most important discoveries in history: the internal combustion engine

The most important discoveries in history: what inventions changed the world

< p>The most important discoveries in history: what inventions changed the world

As you know, when fuel is burned, high-temperature gas is released, which, when expanded, acts on the piston, moving it. This is how internal combustion engines convert chemical energy into mechanical work.

The internal combustion engine was the result of decades of engineering work and took on its modern form in the second half of the 19th century.

The creation of the engine marked the beginning of the industrial age, and also gave rise to a huge variety of machines, including modern cars and aircraft.

It is known that in 1791 John Barber invented the gas turbine, and then in 1794 Robert Street patented the internal combustion engine on liquid fuel and built a working prototype.

The most important discoveries in history: the telephone

The most important discoveries in stories: what inventions changed the world

The most important discoveries in history: what inventions changed the world

Several inventors at once did pioneering work in the field of telephony, but the first to receive a patent for an electric telephone was an American-Canadian scientist of Scottish origin, Alexander Graham Bell. He filed his patent on March 7, 1876.

Three days later, Bell made his first phone call. He called his assistant and said: “Mr. Watson, come here, I want to see you.”

According to Bell himself, his own family inspired him to invent the telephone. The father of the inventor taught oratory and helped teach speech to deaf people. Bell's mother was a musician and lost her hearing in old age. The inventor's wife has been deaf since she was five.

Bell's invention gained well-deserved fame and popularity, and also revolutionized business and communication.

On the day of Bell's death on August 2, 1922, all telephone communications were stopped in the United States and Canada for one minute to honor the memory of the inventor .

The most important discoveries in history: the light bulb

The most important discoveries in stories: what inventions changed the world

History's Most Important Discoveries: What Inventions Changed the World

With the invention of the light bulb, humanity forever conquered its dependence on natural light, allowing people to work productively in any time of the day.

Several inventors worked on the light bulb throughout the 1800s. But the American inventor Thomas Edison did it first. In 1879, he created a fully functional lighting system that included a generator and wiring, and with them the carbon filament light bulb itself.

Edison's invention not only brought electricity to homes around the world, but also changed sleep of people. Instead of going to bed after dark and waking up early, people began to go to bed later and sleep without waking until the morning.

The Most Important Discoveries in History: Penicillin

The most important discoveries in history: what inventions changed the world

The most important discoveries in history: what inventions changed the world

In 1928, Scottish scientist Alexander Fleming discovered a mess in his laboratory: someone forgot to close a Petri dish filled with bacteria. Because the lid was left ajar, the entire sample was infected with mold – and where it appeared, all the bacteria died. Thus, out of the carelessness of a laboratory assistant, a great discovery was born.

The antibiotic mold found turned out to be Penicillium fungus. In the next two decades, chemists managed to clean the mold, studied its properties and developed the drug penicillin. Penicillin can cope with a huge number of bacterial infections in humans, while not harming the human body.

By 1944, penicillin began to be mass-produced and advertised. For example, one of the posters advised the soldiers of World War II to take a drug to get rid of venereal diseases.

The most important discoveries in history: the Internet

The most important discoveries in stories: what inventions changed the world

The most important discoveries in history: what inventions changed the world

In the 1960s, a group of scientists working for the ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency) of the US Department of Defense created a communications network to connect all the computers in the agency. It was called the ARPANET and is considered the forerunner of the Internet.

This network used a data transmission method called “packet switching”, developed by scientist and member of the ARPA team Lawrence Roberts.

In 1970- In the 1990s, the technology was improved by scientists Robert Kahn and Vinton Cerf. They developed the most important communication protocols for the Internet: the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP).

These developments have led Kahn and Cerf to be called the “inventors of the Internet”.

The Internet took a new turn in 1989 thanks to CERN scientist Tim Berners-Lee, who invented the World Wide Web (WWW). According to CERN, “the idea behind the WWW was to combine all the new developments into an easy-to-use global information system”

The development of the WWW has opened up the world of the Internet to everyone and connected the world in a way that has never happened before.