It establishes secure corridors for merchant ships in the Black Sea , according to the principle of neutrality.
This agreement, fiercely negotiated since April under the impetus of Mr. Guterres (on the left), will relieve the countries which depend on the Russian and Ukrainian markets.
Ukraine and Russia ended up Friday by signing, with Turkey and the UN, the agreement on the export of Ukrainian cereals in the Black Sea, during an unprecedented ceremony between countries at war.
kyiv and Moscow signed two identical but separate texts, at the request of Ukraine, which refused to initial any document with Russia.
The four delegations met in the grounds of Dolmabahçe Palace, on the Bosphorus in Istanbul, in the presence of United Nations Secretary General Antonio Guterres, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan as well as Turkish and Russian Ministers of Defense and the Ukrainian Minister of Infrastructure.
The ceremony took place under the flags of the protagonists, those of Russia and Ukraine carefully separated by blue banners of the UN and red of Turkey, which has offered itself as a mediator since the beginning of the Russian invasion on February 24.
This agreement, fiercely negotiated since April under the impetus of Mr. Guterres, who arrived urgently in Istanbul on Thursday evening, will relieve the countries dependent on the Russian and Ukrainian markets – 30% of world wheat trade between them .
The UN chief thanked Russia and Ukraine for overcoming their differences to make way for an initiative at the service of all.
Now the agreement must be fully implemented, he argued.
Mr. Erdogan acknowledged that it had not been easy to get there, and hoped that the signing of this agreement, which comes almost five months after the start of the conflict, would strengthen the situation. #x27;hope to end this war.
Wheat storage silos in the Donetsk region on July 8, 2022
According to the World Food Program (WFP), 47 million more people have been at risk of acute hunger since the start of the war.
A few hours before the ceremony, Ukraine made it clear that it would not sign any document with Russia, only with Turkey and the UN. The Russians have initialed an identical agreement with these two parties.
Mr. Guterres, however, noted the unprecedented nature of this agreement between two countries at war.
Under the terms of this agreement, secure corridors will allow the movement of merchant ships in the Black Sea , which both sides have pledged not to attack, said a UN official who requested anonymity.
The negotiators gave up on clearing the Black Sea of mines – mainly laid by the Ukrainians to protect their coasts: Clearance would have taken too long, justified the UN, which specified that Ukrainian pilots would clear the way for cargo ships in territorial waters.
Russia and Ukraine are to sign an agreement on the export of Ukrainian grain this Friday .
Ukraine has suggested that its exports start from three ports – Odessa, Pivdenny and Chornomorsk – and hopes to increase their number in the future.
The x27;agreement will be valid for 120 days, or four months, just enough time to get out the roughly 25 million tons piled up in Ukraine's silos as a new harvest approaches.
A Joint Coordination Center (JCC) is to be established this weekend in Istanbul with representatives of all parties and the United Nations.
Inspections of ships departing and in direction of the Ukrainian ports will take place under the control of the CCC, in one of the ports of Istanbul, in order to answer the concerns of Moscow, which wants to have the guarantee that the cargo ships will not bring x27;weapons to Ukraine.
A first round of negotiations between military experts from the three countries concerned and the UN took place on July 13 in Istanbul, from which a certain optimism emerged.
Then uncertainty prevailed after demands made by Moscow following the Iran-Russia-Turkey tripartite summit on Tuesday in Tehran.
La Russia has finally secured assurances that Western sanctions will not apply, directly or indirectly, to its own agricultural and fertilizer exports.
Even if Russian [agricultural] products are not affected by the sanctions, there are blockages concerning maritime transport, insurance and the banking system, Turkish Foreign Minister Mevlut Cavusoglu explained on Thursday.
< p class="e-p">In addition, a diplomat in New York said, the United States has offered guarantees so that large tonnage ships will be provided to Russia to facilitate the export of its cereals and its fertilizers.
Due to sanctions, international logistics companies that own such buildings are reluctant to work for Moscow.
The United States United had welcomed the agreement on Thursday and warned that they held Russia responsible for [its] implementation.
But distrust remains in kyiv: No Russian escort and no Russian presence in our ports. In case of provocation, immediate military response, wrote on Twitter on Friday, Mikhaïlo Podoliak, adviser to the Ukrainian presidency.