Well forgotten old. A dangerous disease from the past becomes resistant to antibiotics
A disease like typhoid fever, research shows, still poses a great threat to humanity.
A study by American scientists shows that the bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S Typhi), which is the causative agent of typhoid fever, has been actively mutating in recent years and becoming resistant to antibiotics. According to scientists, now 11 million cases of typhoid fever are registered in the world every year, which can even lead to death. Scientists believe that without vaccination, humanity faces a new epidemic of a dangerous disease, according to ScienceAlert.
A study by scientists from Stanford University, USA, showed that since the 90s of the last century, the number of cases of typhoid infection has been growing very rapidly and its treatment has become ineffective due to the fact that the bacterium, the causative agent of the disease, actively mutates and becomes resistant to modern antibiotics.< /p>
Typhoid fever is an intestinal infectious disease that can currently only be cured with modern antibiotics. If the disease is not treated, then in 20% of cases it can be fatal. It is characterized by the appearance of fever and general intoxication of the body, rashes also appear on the skin of an infected person. Ways of transmission of the disease: water, sometimes food and household.
Scientists have found that over the past few years, people infected with typhoid in Nepal, Bangladesh, Pakistan and India, the S Typhi bacteria have become more resistant to antibiotics. But this problem is no longer limited to Asian countries. Mutated species of the bacterium that causes typhoid fever are actively spreading around the world. Cases of this intestinal infection with antibiotic-resistant bacteria have been identified in Africa and even in the UK, US and Canada.
“Our study shows that in recent years, resistant species of S Typhi bacteria have been rapidly spreading around the globe. This is already becoming a real problem. There are now 11 million cases of typhoid fever every year and a lot of cases where resistance to modern antibiotics has been identified. preventive measures, especially in countries where the number of cases is the highest,” says Jason Andrews of Stanford University.
According to scientists, the fact that the first type of antibiotic-resistant bacterium was identified in Pakistan in 2016 can indicate the rate of mutation of the causative bacterium, and three years later this species became dominant among all cases of typhoid fever in the country.
Antibiotics and vaccination
So far, the most effective antibiotic for typhoid fever is azithromycin. The study showed the bacterium has already developed resistance to some other antibiotics that have been used to treat typhoid fever. Scientists believe that the bacterium S Typhi is also actively mutating and becoming resistant to azithromycin. If this resistance is 100% confirmed, it could cause huge problems for humanity, scientists say.
“In today's world, such mutated bacteria can spread very quickly, which means that this process must be prevented with through preventive measures such as vaccination,” says Andrews.
The countries with the highest incidence of the disease need to be especially strengthened to prevent the spread of typhoid fever, scientists say. Today, 70% of all cases of typhoid fever occur in South Asia. But like COVID-19, the disease could become a global problem, scientists say.
“Antibiotic resistance is one of the world's leading causes of death. Therefore, it is vaccines that can prevent the coming catastrophe,” — says Andrews.
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