Who wins the Nobel Prize and what needs to be done to get it
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For more than 120 years, the Nobel Prize has been awarded to scientists, and not only them, for the most outstanding achievements in six categories. Although the founder of the award himself bequeathed to award money only in five categories and deprived mathematicians of the attention.
The Nobel Prize is one of the most important events in the world. The first prizes were awarded to scientists in 1901, just 5 years after the death of the founder of the most famous award in the world, the Swedish businessman and inventor Alfred Nobel. His most famous invention is dynamite.
The Testament of Alfred Nobel and the Nobel Foundation
Before his death in 1896, Alfred Nobel left a will, which stated that more than 90% of his huge fortune at that time should be invested in securities and banks. The amount of these investments amounted to 31 million Swedish kronor, and interest from this capital should go to the presentation of special awards – Nobel Prizes. To manage these assets, the Nobel Foundation was created: in fact, it is an investment company that manages the funds of a deceased businessman. This fund allocates money for the presentation of the Nobel Prizes.
What are the Nobel Prizes for?
According to Nobel's will, the prizes should be awarded annually to those people who have brought the greatest benefit to all of humanity. It is still not known exactly what prompted the inventor of dynamite to establish special cash prizes. It is believed that Nobel regretted that his inventions were used during wars and brought a lot of suffering to mankind.
Who receives the Nobel Prize?
The Nobel Prize, which includes the presentation of a sum of money, Diplomas and medals can be awarded to scientists for the most outstanding achievements in the following scientific disciplines:
- Medicine or Physiology;
- Also, the Nobel Prize can be awarded to writers for the creation of outstanding literary works. Accordingly, this is a prize for literature.
- Another prize is the Nobel Peace Prize. According to Nobel's will, this cash prize should go to the person who did the most to unite peoples, to strengthen friendship between them and for the efforts made to establish peace and reduce armies.
- There is another prize, about which nothing is said in Nobel's will – this is the Nobel Prize in Economics. Although it is more correct to call it the Bank of Sweden Prize, since it was this financial institution that, in memory of Alfred Nobel, began to present it in 1969. The Nobel Foundation does not allocate money for this award, this is done by the aforementioned bank itself.
Why don't they give the Nobel Prize in mathematics?
It would seem that mathematics, which is one of the fundamental scientific disciplines, should be included to the list for Alfred Nobel Prizes.
It is known that Nobel nevertheless included mathematics in the original version of his will, but later replaced the prize in mathematics with the peace prize. What reasons the Swedish businessman was guided by is still not known exactly. There are several versions that are more like legends, not supported by reliable facts.
According to one version, the reason that mathematics was out of work was Nobel's negative attitude towards the Swedish mathematician Magnus Gustav Mittag-Leffler. The authors of this version believe that the scientist deserved Nobel's dislike either by wooing his fiancee, or because he constantly asked for money for Stockholm University.
The authors of another popular version insist that the woman who loved Nobel, preferred the son of an Austrian diplomat who wanted to be a mathematician.
How much money do you get for the Nobel Prize?
The Nobel Prize for the last 30 years has amounted in monetary terms to an amount in the range from 900 thousand to 1.5 million US dollars. This award is always awarded in Swedish krona and in 2022 it averaged (due to exchange rate fluctuations) 920 thousand dollars for each nomination.
According to the statute of the Nobel Foundation, the award can be received in each category no more than three people for one or two scientific papers. First, the prize is divided in equal parts between scientific achievements, and only after that equal shares are divided among the scientists themselves.
For example, if the Nobel Prize is awarded for two different scientific works and two scientists are behind one of these works, then they will receive only 25% of the total amount. And if there was only one scientific work, but two or three scientists worked on it, then they all receive the prize in equal parts.
- An interesting fact: the Nobel Prize cannot be awarded posthumously. At the same time, if the person nominated for the award was still alive when it became known that he was awarded the award, but died before the moment of presentation, then the award will remain with him.
How do they choose who to award the Nobel Prize to?
All decisions about who to award the Nobel Prize in each individual category are made by the responsible organizations. For example, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences is responsible for prizes in physics and chemistry, as well as economics, the Karolinska Institute (Sweden) is responsible for medicine and physiology, the Swedish Academy is responsible for literature, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee, which is elected by the Norwegian Parliament, is responsible for the peace prize. .
- All Nobel Prizes, except for the Peace Prize, are awarded in Stockholm, the capital of Swedenand makes it the king of this country. And the Peace Prize is presented in Oslo, the capital of Norway, by the head of the Norwegian Nobel Committee, and the King of Norway is also present at this presentation.
- Why is the Peace Prize awarded in Oslo? It is believed that this was a political decision of Nobel himself, who wished that Norway, which at the time of writing the will was in union with Sweden, was also involved in the presentation of awards named after Nobel.
- All Nobel Prizes, except for the Peace Prize, can only be received by individuals, not organizations. Well, both outstanding figures and entire state or public organizations can receive the Peace Prize.
Nobel Prize 2022
In 2022, as well as in previous years, Nobel Prize winners in physics, chemistry, medicine and physiology, literature, economics, and the Nobel Peace Prize were again announced. The latter, by the way, caused a wave of criticism in Ukraine because of the composition of the winners. But – first things first.
In 2022, the amount of the prize in all categories was approximately 920 thousand US dollars in terms of Swedish krona.
Nobel Prize in Physics 2022
In 2022, Alain Aspe, John Clauser and Anton Zeilinger received the physics prize. This award was presented to three scientists for innovative solutions in the field of quantum mechanics, namely for experiments with entangled photons, the establishment of violations in Bell's inequality and for innovations in quantum informatics.
Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2022
The 2022 Chemistry Prize went to Caroline Bertozzi, Barry Sharpless and Morten Meldal. They laid the foundation and actively developed a functional form of chemistry, which was called click chemistry. Also, these scientists came up with a new way of connecting molecules, which is similar to the process of folding Lego blocks.
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2022
In 2022, Svante Paabo, who managed to sequence the Neanderthal genome, received the prize in this category. First, the scientist was able to identify and restore the genome sequences of the Neanderthal, which was a relative of modern humans. And secondly, the geneticist has put a lot of effort into studying human evolution.
Nobel Prize in Literature 2022
In 2022, she was awarded the Annie Erno Prize for outstanding literary work. The official reason for the Nobel Prize in this category is: “for the courage and clinical accuracy with which it reveals the origins of alienation and the collective limitations of personal memory.”
Nobel Peace Prize 2022
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Winners in in this category in 2022 were Ben Bernanke, Douglas Diamond and Philip Dibwig. They received the award for their research on banks and financial crises. In particular, the work of these scientists has improved understanding of the role of banks in the economy, especially during financial crises.
It is important to mention that almost all Nobel Prizes are awarded for achievements that have already been tested for many years and their result is significantly influenced the lives of mankind.
Courtesy of the Nobel Prize, The Guardian, BBC, DW